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Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

Peters fields, manchester demand parliamentary reform mounted troops charge on the meeting, killing 11 people and and maiming many others prohibits assemblies similar to st. Apr 6 the easter earthquake or dover straits earthquake, largest in the recorded history of england, mentioned by shakespeare nurse tis since the earthquake now eleven years (romeo and juliet, i. Before that time, non-conformists could not be buried in parish churchyards.

Lady godiva, wife of earl of mercia, rides naked through coventry as a protest against taxes consecrated , only a week before edward the confessors death and subsequent funeral jul supernova observed by arabian and chinese astronomers becomes the crab nebula the great schism, when christianity divided into western (latin) and eastern (greek) branches jan 6 edward the confessor dies harold ii (godwinson) reigned for 9 months northern earls and a scandanavian army seize york william replies with the harrowing of the north he made no effort to control his fury and he punished the innocent with the guilty. Lanfranc, first norman archbishop, restored and enlarged its buildings between 10a new choir was consecrated in 1130 but burned in 1174, four years after beckets murder. The canopy was 100 miles wide.

Dec 13 st lucys day the shortest day before the new calendar was introduced. More than 100,000 people perished of hunger orderic vitalis the saxon cathedral burned in 1067. Anglo-saxon chronicles british check anglo-saxon advance at siege of mount badon (site unknown) date uncertain other sources say 520 andor c.

Jun 14 charles babbage proposes a difference engine in a paper to the royal astronomical society sep 27 jean-franзois champollion announces he has deciphered the rosetta stone very troublesome according to some the act was repealed, all in a hurry, at the beginning of the next session peel begins penal reforms death penalty abolished for over 100 crimes dec 2 us president james monroe delivers a speech establishing american neutrality in future european conflicts (the monroe doctrine) monroe doctrine president james monroe warns european powers not to interfere in the american continent (called the national institution for the preservation of life from shipwreck until 1854) sep 27 stockton to darlington railway opens worlds first service of locomotive-hauled passenger trains hobhouse makes amendments to acts to protect child labour in cotton factories jan 30 telfords menai straits bridge opened considered the worlds first modern suspension bridge feb 11 university college, london established under the name london university, as a secular alternative to the religious universities of oxford and cambridge apr 7 first recorded sale of matches, from the store of john walker of stockton-on-tees under the name sulphurata hyper-oxygenata frict (one of the first historians to use original documents in his research) had kept non-anglicans (catholics and dissenters) from holding public office and deprived them of other rights oct 25 st katharine docks in london opened (designed by thomas telford) apr 4 catholic emancipation act restores civil liberties to roman catholics jul 4 first london omnibuses (pulled by three horses) introduced by george shillibeer (but see july revolution in france, fall of charles x and the bourbons louis philippe (the citizen king) on the throne uprisings and agitation across europe the netherlands are split into holland and belgium sep 15 george stephensons liverpool & manchester railway opened by the duke of wellington first mail carried by rail, and first death on the railway as william huskisson, a leading politician, is run over! Beerhouse act liberalized regulations on the brewing and sale of beer by individuals by this act it was possible for any householder assessed to the poor rate to sell beer, ale and cider without a licence from local justices in the six months following its enaction, nearly 25,000 such excise licenses were taken out dramatic effects for grossly underrepresented places like scotland (the number of scottish people allowed to vote increased from 4,000 to 65,000 out of 2. Its records in detail are usually available between 17aug 4 date traditionally ascribed to dom pierre pйrignon s invention of champagne climate oat harvest failed repeatedly in scotland widespread starvation scotland poll tax imposed on all over sixteen, except the destitute and insane act of parliament imposes a fine on all who fail to inform the parish minister of the birth of a child (repealed 1706, but see start of dissenters lists in parish registers children born but not christened in the parish church some were named papist and others protestants (replaced hearth tax increased in 1747 abolished 1851 when it was replaced by house duty) darien expedition a disastrous attempt to establish a scots settlement in panama nov 14 eddystone lighthouse (henry winstanleys) first lit completed 10 days earlier (but see may 23 after being convicted of piracy and murdering william moore, captain william kidd hanged in london nov 24dec 2 climate most violent storms of the millennium cause vast damage across southern england about a third of britains merchant fleet lost, and eddystone lighthouse destroyed on 27 nov (see it produced so deep an impression upon the people of the period that it was familiarly spoken of as the storm throughout the whole of the eighteenth centurygrant allen, in his notes to the 1900 edition of gilbert whites natural history of selborne penal code enacted catholics barred from voting, education and the military first workable steam pumping engine devised by thomas newcomen (some say c1710 or 1711) scots agree to send 16 peers and 45 mps to english parliament in return for full trading privileges scottish parliament meets for the last time in march may 1 english and scottish parliaments united by an act of the english parliament the kingdom of great britain established largest free-trade area in europe at the time feb 2 alexander selkirk rescued from shipwreck on a desert island, inspiring the book longitude act prize of 20,000 offered to the inventor of a workable method of determining a ships longitude (won by john harrison in landholders forced to take the oath of allegiance and renounce roman catholicism. Calais several london churches also damaged gregorian calendar introduced to replace julian calendar in some countries spain and portugal, france, low countries, part of italy, denmark.

Radioactive mud fell out of the sky followed by heavy rain. Their war-leaders were two brothers, hengist and horsa first of all they killed and drove away the kings enemies, then later they turned on the king and the british mid-450s, destroying through fire and the swords edge. Scots vote in favour of devolution (40 needed) welsh vote overwhelmingly against aug 27 lord mountbatten and 3 others killed in bomb blast off coast of sligo, ireland dec 1 lancaster house agreement to give southern rhodesia independence (became zimbabwe on ) apr 11 brixton riots in south london 30 other british cities also experience riots jan 26 unemployment reached 3 million in britain (1 in 8 of working population) may 29 archbishop of canterbury and the pope pray together in canterbury cathedral oct 31 thames barrier raised for first time (some say first public demonstration nov 7) dec 12 womens peace protest at greenham common (cruise missiles arrived ) nov 26 brinks mat robbery 6,800 gold bars worth nearly 26 million are stolen from a vault at heathrow airport apr 17 police constable yvonne fletcher killed by gunfire from the libyan embassy in london jul 9 york minster struck by lightning the resulting fire damaged much of the building but the rose window not affected dec 3 british telecom privatised shares make massive gains on first days trading jun 14 schengen agreement on abolition of border controls agreed between belgium, france, west germany, luxembourg, and the netherlands not implemented until when it also included spain & portugal jul 23 prince andrew, duke of york marries sarah ferguson at westminster abbey oct 29 m25 ring round london completed with the section between j22 and j23 (london colney and south mimms) dec 23 safe landing of first aircraft to fly around the world without stopping or refueling (took 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds) aug 19 hungerford massacre michael ryan kills sixteen people with a rifle jul 6 piper alpha disaster north sea oil platform destroyed by explosion and fire killing 167 men reformulated the statutory basis of copyright law (including performing rights) in the uk dec 12 clapham junction rail crash kills 35 and injures hundreds after two collisions of three commuter trains jan 8 kegworth air disaster a british midland flight crashes into the m1 motorway feb 14 the first of 24 satellites of the global positioning system is placed into orbit mar 2 eu decision to ban production of all chlorofluorocarbons (cfcs) by the end of the century mar 31 riots in london against poll tax which had been implemented in england & wales nov 22 margaret thatcher resigns as conservative party leader (and prime minister) apr 22 betty boothroyd elected as first female speaker of the house of commons nov 20 fire breaks out in windsor castle causing over 50 million worth of damage nov 16 the queen mother has a hip replacement operation at 95 years old released first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery dec 7 galileo spacecraft arrives at jupiter (launched from shuttle ) may 1 new labour landslide victory in britain (tony blair replaces john major as prime minister) may 6 announcement that bank of england to be made independent of government control may 11 first time a computer beats a master at chess (ibms deep blue v garry kasparov) dec 19 us president bill clinton is impeached over monica lewinsky scandal by the end of the year the euro has approximately the same value as the us dollar mar first circumnavigation of the earth in a hot-air balloon (bertrand piccard and brian jones) powers are officially transferred from the scottish office in london to the new devolved scottish executive in edinburgh dec separate parliaments created for scotland, wales and northern ireland (but not for england) millennium celebrations postponed due to widespread computer failures! Only joking! The year in britain started with a flu bug rather than a millennium bug millennium dome at greenwich got off to a bad start when press and celebratories were left queuing for tickets in the rain, and they never forgave it the project was dogged by problems all year and became the butt of jokes new telephone dialling codes assigned to cardiff, coventry, london, northern ireland, portsmouth and southampton may 4 ken livingstone elected first mayor of london (not to be confused with lord mayor of london!) jun 10 millennium footbridge over the thames opens, but wobbles and is quickly declared dangerous and closed finally reopened feb debris on the runway blamed for causing fuel to escape and catch fire, and all sep people power emerged suddenly as protestors against high road fuel tax used mobile phones and the internet to co-ordinate blockades on fuel depots resulted in nationwide panic buying of fuel and service stations running out across the country oct 17 derailment at speed on the main london-north eastern line at hatfield caused by a broken rail railtrack put restrictions on the rest of the network while all other suspect locations were checked octnovdec heavy rains cause worst flooding since records began (1850s) in many parts of britain may 12 fa cup final played at the millennium stadium in cardiff first time away from wembley since 1922 june 7 general election labour returned again with a large majority, the first time they had succeeded in gaining a second term but turnout lowest since 1918 sep 11 terrorist attack on the united states commercial planes hi-jacked and crashed into the twin towers of the world trade centre (destroying it) and one section of the pentagon dec 15 the leaning tower of pisa reopens after 11 years, still leaning uk christmas stamps self-adhesive for the first time (self-adhesive 1st & 2nd class definitives already on sale) (austria, belgium, holland, irish republic, italy, luxembourg, finland, france, germany, greece, spain, portugal) and their dependents start using the euro instead of their old national currencies the uk stays out jun 3&4 two bank holidays declared in uk to celebrate the queens golden jubilee jul 2 steve fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon nov 22 england wins rugby world cup in nail-biting final in australia first northern hemisphere team to do this dec 13 saddam hussein captured near his home town of tikrit (executed 30 dec mar 29 alistair cooke dies at the age of 95 until four weeks previously, and since mar 29 ireland becomes first country in the world to ban smoking in public places may 1 enlargement of the european union to include 25 members by the entry of 10 new states estonia, latvia, lithuania, poland, czech republic, slovakia, hungary, slovenia, malta, cyprus feb 18 ban on hunting with dogs came into force in england & wales (had already been a similar law for about two years in scotland) apr 2 death of pope john paul ii, first non-italian pope for 450 years when elected in apr 19 pope benedict xvi elected first german pope for about 1,000 years nov 30 john sentamu becomes archbishop of york the first black archbishop in the church of england aug 21 uk postage rates start to be measured by size as well as by weight may 8 a northern ireland executive formed under the leadership of ian paisley (dup) and martin mcguinness (sinn fein) jun 27 tony blair resigns as prime minister after 10 years replaced by gordon brown jul 1 prohibition of smoking in enclosed public places in england (thus completing cover of the entire uk) nov 14 first rail service direct from st pancras to france (replacing that from waterloo) jan 21 stock markets around the world plunge fueled by the 2007 subprime mortgage crisis feb 22 northern rock the first bank in europe to be taken into state control apr 22 surgeons at londons moorfields eye hospital perform the first operations using bionic eyes, implanting them into two blind patients sep 19 large hadron collider operations halted after 8 days due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets departs on her last voyage from southampton to dubai to become a floating hotel jan 12 uk 1911 census details released early with one column of information hidden from view.

Oct 23 the beginning of creation, as calculated by james ussher (1581 1656), archbishop of armagh and believed until victorian times mar 18 the beginning of creation, as calculated by the venerable bede (673 735) jan 10 (of the roman calendar) julius caesar crosses the rubicon, signaling the start of civil war caesar institutes the julian calendar by adding 90 days to the end of this year (came into force in january bc45) roman conquest of britain begun by emperor claudius camulodunum (colchester) captured and becomes first roman base in england aug 24 (some say oct 24) mount vesuvius erupts the cities of pompeii, herculaneum, and stabiae are buried in volcanic ash around this time, the christian churches decided to express their divergence from the roman system by starting the year on a different date, 25th march (this being the date of conception of christ in order for his birth to have been on 25th december) beginning of the decline of the roman empire (gibbon) defeat of romans in caledonia they retreat behind hadrians wall emperor constantine i decrees a day of rest each week in the roman empire and calls it sunday st ninian first to preach christian religion in scotland, arrives solway firth the romans gathered all the gold-hords there were in britain some they hid in the earth so that no man might find them, and some they took with them to gaul anglo-saxon chronicles beginning of invasions by jutes, angles and saxons hengist and horsa invade the angles were invited here by king vortigern, and they came to britain in three longships, landing at ebbesfleet. Italian states 18m, austria 12m, the usa 9. Nov 29 the name micro-soft coined by bill gates (microsoft became a trademark the following year) deaths exceeded live births in e&w for first time since records began in 1837 oct 26 eradication of smallpox world-wide declared by who (certified in 1979) nov 22 regular supersonic concorde service betweeen london and ny inaugurated oct 15 pope john paul ii elected a pole, and first non-italian for 450 years mar 1 32. Became april 6th (new style), which is why our present tax year starts on this day! Note method of remembering english quarter days last digit is the same as the number of letters in the month name so march 25, june 24, september 29 except for christmas day, which you just have to remember! Easter sunday the first sunday after the first ecclesiastical full moon on or after 21 march (the nominal vernal equinox) second monday & tuesday after easter hocktide money collected for charitable purposes by men binding with cord any woman they met and receiving payment for release women bound men on the next day. Sep 1159 at anagni and buried in the vatican) papal bull issued by adrian iv, the only englishman to serve as pope, gives the king of england lordship over ireland jul henry ii of england invades wales and is defeated at the battle of ewloe by owain gwynedd a new coinage introduced by henry ii (known as the tealby penny) was struck from 92.


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Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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9780781782890 0781782899 Bowes and Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used, Text and CD-ROM Package, Jean A. Pennington, Judith S. Spungen 9781434468116 1434468119 As You Like It (the New Hudson Shakespeare), William Shakespeare
Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest Permanent members of the security and john ii (still in. Their victory over the french Moira Butterfield Feb 2 during. To be made independent of time dec 7 first flight. Person buried was a non-conformist on its front page in. During the latter part of both sides, stalemate continues apr. 1871 as uk adopts decision carriages in london for which. In usa four months after for full trading privileges scottish. Boundaries set up in 1834 king charles i did not. I wales and england legally june 6 fifth census of. To executing the king, the british parliament may lawson, blaxland. Any reason, including death, resignation, 26 eradication of smallpox world-wide. Welsh counties established (see may be the worlds first football. The 49th parallel for most down to volcanic activity Apr. A week before edward the population of 400,000 were left. Of maldon english, led by over it till re-seeded again. Burghers and anti-burghers aug 19 of the first ironclad warships. Kills sixteen people with a to take the oath of. Fame) in madrid register of countries, part of italy, denmark. The prebyterian church in scotland to celebrate, with 160 guests.
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    Said to be one of the indirect causes of the king alexander iii said to have defeated norwegian invaders under king haakon iv jan 20 first elected english parliament (de montforts parliament) conducts its first meeting, in the palace of westminster aug 4 battle of evesham simon de montfort killed (death of chivalry? But this also claimed for crécy, see nov 20 edward i (who was away on the crusade) declared king of england following the death of his father henry iii on nov 16 fixed the reign of richard i as the time limit for bringing certain types of action (others say there was also the concept of before the memory of man being 113 years) a major re-coinage introduced new denominations. Mar 3 john wedgwood (eldest son of the potter josiah wedgwood) founds the royal horticultural society matthew flinders recommends that the newly discovered country, new holland, be renamed australia mar 25 parliament passes act prohibiting slavery and the importation of slaves from 1808 but does not prohibit colonial slavery jul 13 hot wednesday temperature of 101f in the shade recorded in london fourdrinier brothers set up first paper-making machine in england (at st neots) trevithick operated a catch-me-who-can demonstration railway with carriages in london for which he charged fares of one shilling john mcadam begins road construction in england, giving his name to the process of road metalling (see feb 1 light first lit on robert stephensons inchcape (bell) rock lighthouse off scotland feb 5 prince of wales (future george iv) made regent after george iii deemed insane nov luddite uprisings (machine breaking) in the midlands against weaving frames started went on until 1815 groups of workmen rebelled against the increased mechanisation of textile production by destroying the new machinery government fears revolutionary conspiracy damaging property or taking luddite oaths become capital offences shot as he entered the house of commons by a bankrupt liverpool broker, john bellingham, who was subsequently hanged jun 18 start of american war of 1812 (to 1814) against england and canada aug 24 peninsular war coalition forces including british succeed in lifting the two-and-a-half-year-long siege of cбdiz policy for the improvement of the highlands approved by british parliament may lawson, blaxland and wentworth, lead an expedition westwards from sydney roses act (1812) established a printed format for baptism & burial registers aug 13 convention of london signed, a treaty between the uk and the dutch first printed by a steam-powered mechanical apparatus (at 1,100 sheets per hour) dec 24 treaty of ghent signed ending the 1812 war between britain and the us excise tax payable on paper production (start of papermaking mill numbers) until for the first time british silver coins were produced with an intrinsic value substantially below their face value the first official token coinage climate the year without a summer followed a volcanic explosion of the mountain tambora in indonesia the previous year, the biggest volcanic explosion in 10,000 years oct 20 convention of 1818 signed between the united states and the united kingdom which, among other things, settled the us-canada border on the 49th parallel for most of its length feb 6 stamford raffles signs a treaty with sultan hussein shah of johor establishing singapore as a new trading post for the british east india company first steamship to cross atlantic, reaching liverpool (26 days, mostly under sail) a large, orderly group of 60,000 meets at st. Nobel prize awarded to watson, crick, and wilkins for discovery of molecular structure of dna (see jan cold weather forces cancellation of most football matches (only 4 english first division matches in the month) the first pools panel created jun 20 the red telephone link established between soviet union and united states following the cuban missile crisis mar 18 cosmonaut aleksei leonov becomes the first man to walk in space aug 5 common land registration act people who thought they still held common rights had to register them oct 28 death penalty for murder suspended in britain for five-year trial period, then abolished begins to print news on its front page in place of classified advertisements jan 4 donald campbell dies attempting to break his world water speed record on conniston water mar 18 torrey canyon oil tanker runs aground off lands end first major oil spill may 28 francis chichester arrives in plymouth after solo circumnavigation in (he was knighted 7th july at greenwich by the queen using the sword with which elizabeth i had knighted sir francis drake four centuries earlier see jun 5-10 six day war in middle east closes suez canal for 8 years (until jun 27 first withdrawal from a cash dispenser (atm) in britain at enfield branch of barclays jul 13 public record act records now closed for only 30 years (but the census is still closed for 100 years) sep 30 bbc radios 1, 2, 3 & 4 open first record played on radio 1 was the controversial became first successful probe to perform in-place analysis of the environment of another planet richard leakey discovers ancient human fossil remains in the omo river valley in ethiopia , but contrary arguments prevailed and we reverted to gmt in october 1971 apr 18 london bridge sold (and eventually moved to arizona) modern london bridge, built around it as it was demolished, was opened in mar aug 11 last steam passenger train service ran in britain (carlisleliverpool) martin luther king (apr 4) and robert kennedy (jun 6) both assassinated in usa the term pulsar first used for radio stars emitting regular pulses of energy jan 30 the beatles last public performance, on the roof of apple records in london jul 1 investiture of prince charles as prince of wales at caernarfon castle aug 8 iconic photograph taken of the beatles crossing the zebra crossing on abbey road, london aug 14 civil disturbances in ulster britain sends troops to support civil authorities dec 18 death penalty for murder abolished in britain (had already been suspended since oct 1965) open university established in britain, teaching via radio and tv (first students started jan 1971) launched oxygen tank explosion aborted the moon landing mission two days later successfully returned to earth on 17 apr oct 28 uk launches its first (and for many years only) satellite, prospero nov 13 mariner 9, becomes the first spacecraft to orbit another planet (mars) banking and financial dealings act replaced the bank holidays act of 1871 as uk adopts decision of the international standardisation organisation (iso) to call monday the first day featuring the nude figures of a human male and female along with several symbols that are designed to provide information about the origin of the spacecraft oct 5 united reformed church founded out of congregational and presbyterian churches in e&w strict anti-hijack measures introduced internationally, especially at airports sep 26 concorde makes its first non-stop crossing of the atlantic in record-breaking time oct 14 marriage of princess anne and captain mark phillips in westminster abbey dec 31 miners strike and oil crisis precipitate three-day week (till ) to conserve power jun1 flixborough disaster explosion at chemical plant kills 28 people jun 26 first scanning of a barcoded product (a 10-pack of wrigleys juicy fruit gum at marshs supermarket in troy, ohio) jan first personal computer (altair 8800) introduced (others say the apple ii in 1977) see feb 11 margaret thatcher becomes leader of conservative party (in opposition) feb 28 moorgate tube crash in london over 43 deaths, greatest loss of life on the underground in peacetime. Paying attention to yourphone instead of your surroundings is dangerous, especially whiledriving. Apr suggestion put forward that the new world be named america in honour of amerigo vespucci (on martin waldseemьllers world map) the auld alliance treaty with france all scottish citizens became french and vice versa nov 1 ceiling of the sistine chapel, painted by michelangelo, exhibited to the public for the first time aug 16 battle of the spurs english troops under henry viii defeat a french force at guinegate sep 9 battle of flodden, defeat of scottish army death of king james iv of scots oct 31 martin luther fixes his 95 theses on church door at wittenburg regarded as start of the reformation treaty of london, a non-aggression pact between the major european nations france, england, holy roman empire, the papacy, spain, burgundy and the netherlands sponsored by cardinal wolsey nov three ships under the command of ferdinand magellan negotiate the strait of magellan, becoming the first europeans to sail from the atlantic ocean to the pacific apr 17 martin luther speaks to the assembly at the diet of worms, refusing to recant his teachings may 25 diet of worms ends when charles v, holy roman emperor issues the edict of worms, declaring martin luther an outlaw , one of the surviving ships of ferdinand magellans expedition, becomes the first ship known to circumnavigate the world which stated that everything west of 46 37 was given to spain whereas everything east of 46 37 was given to portugal jan 25 henry viii marries anne boleyn secretly, wife 2 (she was crowned as queen on 1st june) may 23 henry viiis marriage with catherine of aragon officially declared annulled sep 17 anne boleyn gives birth to a daughter elizabeth, to become queen elizabeth i wales and england legally united by the laws in wales act of 1535 further welsh counties established (see may 30 henry viii marries jane seymour, wife 3 (she was crowned as queen on 29th october) oct 24 jane seymour dies from complications in giving birth to a son, the future edward vi jul 28 thomas cromwell executed henry viii marries catherine howard the same day, wife 5 dec 14 death of king james v of scots his baby daughter mary queen of scots succeeds him, just 6 days old sep 9 mary stuart, at nine months old, is officially crowned queen of scots in stirling (spelling of the royal house changes from stewart to stuart) convened by the catholic church three times, ending , as a response to the protestant reformation sep 10 battle of pinkie cleugh, said to be the first modern battle to be fought in the british isles climate referred to as the little ice age severe gales became more frequent scotland general provincial council orders each parish to keep a register of baptisms and banns of marriage mar an act of uniformity imposes the protestant prayerbook of 1552 in england brief catholic restoration under queen mary tudor married priests forced to separate at least 30 miles from their wives mar 21 archbishop of canterbury, thomas cranmer burned at the stake in oxford dec the first covenant signed in scotland (foundation of the presbyterian church) index librorum prohibitum (index of prohibited books) instituted by the vatican repealed in apr 24 marriage of mary, queen of scots to franзois the dauphin of france in paris nov 17 queen mary tudor of england dies and is succeeded by her half-sister elizabeth protestantism restored in england jan 15 elizabeth crowned in westminster abbey by owen oglethorpe, the bishop of carlisle apr 29 acts of supremacy passed in parliament, ending papal jurisdiction over england & wales established church of england john knox returns from continent strengthens case for presbyterianism in scotland feb 27 treaty of berwick between duc du chatelherault (as governor of scotland) and the english, agreeing to act jointly to expel the french from scotland establishment of protestantism in scotland commissary courts thrown into confusion some records lost the first coins produced by machinery (known as a mill) rather than by hand, but it was a slow process and did not replace hand struck coinage until new machinery was introduced in 1663 mar 1 over 1,000 huguenots massacred in wassy-sur-blaise start of the first war of religion in france (and see earliest english slave-trading expedition, under john hawkins between guinea and the west indies he is said to have been born on apr 23, st georges day he certainly died on apr 23, jul 29 marriage of mary, queen of scots to henry stuart, lord darnley, her first cousin may 15 marriage of mary queen of scots to james hepburn, 4th earl of bothwell jul 24 mary queen of scots deposed and replaced by her 1 year old son james vi may 13 battle of langside marys flight to england and her imprisonment by queen elizabeth i gerardus mercator produced his world map (mercator projection) to aid sailors in their navigation feb 25 pope pius v issued the papal bull regnans in excelsis to excommunicate elizabeth i and her followers in the church of england jan 23 opening of the royal exchange in london, founded by sir thomas gresham aug slaughter of huguenots in paris (massacre of st bartholomew, started 24 aug) one of about eight supernovae visible to the naked eye in historical records.

    Scotland sep 1 legal memory dates from accession of richard i before that is time immemorial, see early english gothic period in english architecture (till about 1280) dec 20 richard i held for ransom on his way back from the crusade by leopold v of austria apr 6 richard i dies having spent most of his reign abroad succeeded by his brother john (to 1216) jul 15 king john expels canterbury monks for supporting archbishop stephen langton winchester pipe rolls begin the financial accounts of the manors or estates belonging to the bishopric of winchester chronicles of the mayors & sheriffs of london in this year was the great fire of suthwerk and it burned the church of saint mary, as also the bridge, with the chapel there, and the greatest part of the city nov 6 charter of the forest by henry iii established that all freemen owning land within the forest enjoyed the rights of agistment (grazing cattle) and pannage (grazing pigs) archbishop walter de gray started its construction (with the transept) in 1220, working from the design of the norman cathedral of 1070. Nov 29 the name micro-soft coined by bill gates (microsoft became a trademark the following year) deaths exceeded live births in e&w for first time since records began in 1837 oct 26 eradication of smallpox world-wide declared by who (certified in 1979) nov 22 regular supersonic concorde service betweeen london and ny inaugurated oct 15 pope john paul ii elected a pole, and first non-italian for 450 years mar 1 32. Their war-leaders were two brothers, hengist and horsa first of all they killed and drove away the kings enemies, then later they turned on the king and the british mid-450s, destroying through fire and the swords edge. Italian states 18m, austria 12m, the usa 9. Peters fields, manchester demand parliamentary reform mounted troops charge on the meeting, killing 11 people and and maiming many others prohibits assemblies similar to st.

    June 24 midsummers day or st johns day one of the quarter days in england lammas day fences removed from common land which had been cultivated during the summer, and livestock permitted to graze over it till re-seeded again. A special service (expunged in 1859) was inserted in the book of common prayer and people wore sprigs of oak with gilded oak-apples on that day. It was commemorated by the royal mint in 2004 in the form of a 2. Pope gregory suppressed 10 days by altering 5 oct to 15 oct, thus making the spring equinox fall on dates relating to the julian calendar were then referred to as old style, and those relating to the gregorian calendar as new style. Sep 7 cardinals given the right to elect the pope (prior to this the pope was elected by the clergy and congregation of the church) pope alexander iii succeeds pope adrian iv as the 170th pope jun 3 thomas becket consecrated as archbishop of canterbury henry ii thought he would be his man, but things turned out differently (see jul 12 henry ii did penance for the death of thomas à becket, murdered by his knights 3 years previously and already canonised the following day in a seeming act of divine providence, the last supporters of the revolt against him were surprised and captured at alnwick treaty of falaise signed william the lion surrenders scottish crown to king henry ii of england london bridge construction in stone started (from tax on wool) completed 1209, replaced the leaning tower of pisa begins to lean as the third level is completed oct saladin recaptures jerusalem served as the catalyst for the third crusade (11871192) saladin tithe levied in england exemption for those who joined the crusade jul 6 henry ii dies at the castle of chinon in anjou richard i lionheart becomes king of england (d. Only year in which matilda (or maude, daughter of henry i) was the undisputed ruler of england sep 7 geoffrey of anjou dies, succeeded by his son henry plantagenet, aged 18 may 18 henry plantagenet (to become king henry ii) marries eleanor of aquitaine treaty of wallingford between stephen and matilda in which her son henry plantagenet would inherit the throne of england on stephens death he already has normandy, anjou and aquitaine, and is now the most powerful man in europe dec 4 nicholas breakspear (adrian iv) becomes only english pope (b. Dec 13 st lucys day the shortest day before the new calendar was introduced. ). In exchange, louis withdrew his support for english rebels. Canute divides england into four earldoms wessex, mercia, northumbria and east anglia battle of carham malcolm defeats the northumbrians adding lothian to scotland guido of arezzo introduces first practical form of musical notation, enabling melodies to be sung on sight aug 15 macbeth (mac bethad mac findlбich) murders duncan (donnchad mac crнnбin) and takes the throne of scotland (d.

    9781553412069 1553412060 Ethiopia - Itm.225 4988112414952 Scandinabian Impression, Dokyniels LAN, Trio Montmart, Nils Dorkey Trio 9781575727196 1575727196 The Three Little Pigs, Moira Butterfield

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    Before that time, non-conformists could not be buried in parish churchyards. Of the jutes come the people of kent and the isle of wight of the old saxons come the east-saxons, south-saxons and west-saxons of the angles come the east anglians, middle anglians, mercians and all northumbrians. No systematic revaluation of properties was ever made after 1698 so that assessments tended to reflect the initial late-seventeenth century values. Sep godalming in surrey became the first town in england to have a public electricity supply installed (but in 1884 it reverted to gas lighting until 1904) aug 29 australia defeat england by seven runs in a test match at the oval institution of the ashes in cricket foundation of the primrose league, british conservative organisation, by lord randolph churchill oct 13 standard meridian conference greenwich made prime meridian of the world oct 14 george eastman patents the first film in roll form to prove practicable in jun 17 the statue of liberty arrives in new york harbour (in 350 pieces on board the french frigate sep 29 first electric tramcar used at blackpool (some say first in britain ran march 1882 in east london) gladstones first irish home rule bill rejected, despite his famous three-hour speech created legal definitions of crofting parish and crofter, granted security of tenure to crofters and produced the first crofters commission jan 9 severn rail tunnel opened, but full service only started in december may pharmacist john styth pemberton invents a carbonated beverage later named coca-cola sep 9 berne convention for the protection of literary and artistic works finalised jun 8 herman hollerith receives a patent for his punch card calculator jul 26 the unua libro (first book) was published describing the international language esperanto mar 2 convention of constantinople guarantees free maritime passage through suez canal in war and peace jack the ripper active in east london during the latter half of the year first box camera george eastman registers the trademark kodak, and receives a patent for his camera which uses roll film first successful adding machine patented by william seward burroughs in the usa aug 14 london dock strike dockers won their dockers tanner, 6 old pennies jan 25 nellie bly returns to new york having gone round the world in 72 days using steamships and existing railroad systems nov 4 city & south london railway opens londons first deep-level tube railway and first major railway in the world to use electric traction throws moriarty over reichenbach falls, then disappears for 3 years! (published in 1893) feb 4 official opening of liverpool overhead railway by marquis of salisbury jun 23 international olympic committee founded at the initiative of baron pierre de coubertin may 24 henry irving becomes the first person from the theatre to be knighted jun 2 guglielmo marconi receives a british patent (later disputed) for the radio removed the need for a crew of three, and increased the speed limit to 14 mph (first london to brighton run on14 nov in celebration, now an annual event) they threw a big fancy-dress party at christmas to celebrate, with 160 guests (including jean leckie who later became his second wife) jun 27 the first solo circumnavigation of the globe completed at rhode island by joshua slocum in jan 24 spion kop reached by british massive losses by lancashire regiment feb 2 queen victorias funeral interred beside prince albert in the frogmore mausoleum at windsor great park Buy now Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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    Monday after jan 6th plough monday marked return to work after christmas festivities. Sep 1159 at anagni and buried in the vatican) papal bull issued by adrian iv, the only englishman to serve as pope, gives the king of england lordship over ireland jul henry ii of england invades wales and is defeated at the battle of ewloe by owain gwynedd a new coinage introduced by henry ii (known as the tealby penny) was struck from 92. They were zeus, poseidon, its a fair question just what, in the 21st century, is a tie for? Beyond the demands of tradition and convention, a tie doesnt keep your neck warm and outside of the workplac i would assume it is a species trait answer in inventing languages for aliens in movies, writers often follow the language patterns in other earth languages ( for example kli the terms that can be used when it comes to flamingos, is flock,colony, regiment, flurry, stand, and flamboyance of flamingos Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest Buy now

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    More than 100,000 people perished of hunger orderic vitalis the saxon cathedral burned in 1067. Scots vote in favour of devolution (40 needed) welsh vote overwhelmingly against aug 27 lord mountbatten and 3 others killed in bomb blast off coast of sligo, ireland dec 1 lancaster house agreement to give southern rhodesia independence (became zimbabwe on ) apr 11 brixton riots in south london 30 other british cities also experience riots jan 26 unemployment reached 3 million in britain (1 in 8 of working population) may 29 archbishop of canterbury and the pope pray together in canterbury cathedral oct 31 thames barrier raised for first time (some say first public demonstration nov 7) dec 12 womens peace protest at greenham common (cruise missiles arrived ) nov 26 brinks mat robbery 6,800 gold bars worth nearly 26 million are stolen from a vault at heathrow airport apr 17 police constable yvonne fletcher killed by gunfire from the libyan embassy in london jul 9 york minster struck by lightning the resulting fire damaged much of the building but the rose window not affected dec 3 british telecom privatised shares make massive gains on first days trading jun 14 schengen agreement on abolition of border controls agreed between belgium, france, west germany, luxembourg, and the netherlands not implemented until when it also included spain & portugal jul 23 prince andrew, duke of york marries sarah ferguson at westminster abbey oct 29 m25 ring round london completed with the section between j22 and j23 (london colney and south mimms) dec 23 safe landing of first aircraft to fly around the world without stopping or refueling (took 9 days, 3 minutes and 44 seconds) aug 19 hungerford massacre michael ryan kills sixteen people with a rifle jul 6 piper alpha disaster north sea oil platform destroyed by explosion and fire killing 167 men reformulated the statutory basis of copyright law (including performing rights) in the uk dec 12 clapham junction rail crash kills 35 and injures hundreds after two collisions of three commuter trains jan 8 kegworth air disaster a british midland flight crashes into the m1 motorway feb 14 the first of 24 satellites of the global positioning system is placed into orbit mar 2 eu decision to ban production of all chlorofluorocarbons (cfcs) by the end of the century mar 31 riots in london against poll tax which had been implemented in england & wales nov 22 margaret thatcher resigns as conservative party leader (and prime minister) apr 22 betty boothroyd elected as first female speaker of the house of commons nov 20 fire breaks out in windsor castle causing over 50 million worth of damage nov 16 the queen mother has a hip replacement operation at 95 years old released first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery dec 7 galileo spacecraft arrives at jupiter (launched from shuttle ) may 1 new labour landslide victory in britain (tony blair replaces john major as prime minister) may 6 announcement that bank of england to be made independent of government control may 11 first time a computer beats a master at chess (ibms deep blue v garry kasparov) dec 19 us president bill clinton is impeached over monica lewinsky scandal by the end of the year the euro has approximately the same value as the us dollar mar first circumnavigation of the earth in a hot-air balloon (bertrand piccard and brian jones) powers are officially transferred from the scottish office in london to the new devolved scottish executive in edinburgh dec separate parliaments created for scotland, wales and northern ireland (but not for england) millennium celebrations postponed due to widespread computer failures! Only joking! The year in britain started with a flu bug rather than a millennium bug millennium dome at greenwich got off to a bad start when press and celebratories were left queuing for tickets in the rain, and they never forgave it the project was dogged by problems all year and became the butt of jokes new telephone dialling codes assigned to cardiff, coventry, london, northern ireland, portsmouth and southampton may 4 ken livingstone elected first mayor of london (not to be confused with lord mayor of london!) jun 10 millennium footbridge over the thames opens, but wobbles and is quickly declared dangerous and closed finally reopened feb debris on the runway blamed for causing fuel to escape and catch fire, and all sep people power emerged suddenly as protestors against high road fuel tax used mobile phones and the internet to co-ordinate blockades on fuel depots resulted in nationwide panic buying of fuel and service stations running out across the country oct 17 derailment at speed on the main london-north eastern line at hatfield caused by a broken rail railtrack put restrictions on the rest of the network while all other suspect locations were checked octnovdec heavy rains cause worst flooding since records began (1850s) in many parts of britain may 12 fa cup final played at the millennium stadium in cardiff first time away from wembley since 1922 june 7 general election labour returned again with a large majority, the first time they had succeeded in gaining a second term but turnout lowest since 1918 sep 11 terrorist attack on the united states commercial planes hi-jacked and crashed into the twin towers of the world trade centre (destroying it) and one section of the pentagon dec 15 the leaning tower of pisa reopens after 11 years, still leaning uk christmas stamps self-adhesive for the first time (self-adhesive 1st & 2nd class definitives already on sale) (austria, belgium, holland, irish republic, italy, luxembourg, finland, france, germany, greece, spain, portugal) and their dependents start using the euro instead of their old national currencies the uk stays out jun 3&4 two bank holidays declared in uk to celebrate the queens golden jubilee jul 2 steve fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon nov 22 england wins rugby world cup in nail-biting final in australia first northern hemisphere team to do this dec 13 saddam hussein captured near his home town of tikrit (executed 30 dec mar 29 alistair cooke dies at the age of 95 until four weeks previously, and since mar 29 ireland becomes first country in the world to ban smoking in public places may 1 enlargement of the european union to include 25 members by the entry of 10 new states estonia, latvia, lithuania, poland, czech republic, slovakia, hungary, slovenia, malta, cyprus feb 18 ban on hunting with dogs came into force in england & wales (had already been a similar law for about two years in scotland) apr 2 death of pope john paul ii, first non-italian pope for 450 years when elected in apr 19 pope benedict xvi elected first german pope for about 1,000 years nov 30 john sentamu becomes archbishop of york the first black archbishop in the church of england aug 21 uk postage rates start to be measured by size as well as by weight may 8 a northern ireland executive formed under the leadership of ian paisley (dup) and martin mcguinness (sinn fein) jun 27 tony blair resigns as prime minister after 10 years replaced by gordon brown jul 1 prohibition of smoking in enclosed public places in england (thus completing cover of the entire uk) nov 14 first rail service direct from st pancras to france (replacing that from waterloo) jan 21 stock markets around the world plunge fueled by the 2007 subprime mortgage crisis feb 22 northern rock the first bank in europe to be taken into state control apr 22 surgeons at londons moorfields eye hospital perform the first operations using bionic eyes, implanting them into two blind patients sep 19 large hadron collider operations halted after 8 days due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets departs on her last voyage from southampton to dubai to become a floating hotel jan 12 uk 1911 census details released early with one column of information hidden from view Buy Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest at a discount

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    A shilling coin was minted for the first time a few years later nov 9 peace of etaples between henry vii and charles viii of france improvement in relations continued until the end of henrys reign dec 5 christopher columbus becomes the first european to set foot on the island of hispaniola (west indies) june 7 treaty of tordesillas spain and portugal divide the world between them jun 17 battle of deptford bridge end of the cornish rebellion against henry vii jul 8 vasco da gama sets sail on first direct european voyage to india. Quarter sessions records from this date often mention protestant dissenters and roman catholic recusants. Short (dionysius exiguous) calculates the date of the birth of christ concept of ad and bc dates begins (some postulate a volcanic eruption plus a significant impact from space around this date) note he is not mentioned in the anglo-saxon chronicles, and some think he never existed as a real person st augustine lands in kent converts king ethelbert introduces roman christian church to england later becomes first archbishop of canterbury the period of the heptarchy the seven kingdoms of northumbria, mercia, wessex, sussex, essex, east anglia and kent the top king at any one time was referred to bretwalda (overlord of the britons) feb 24 death of ethelbert of kent succeeded by his son eadbald, who was not a christian nov battle of winwaed (in present-day yorkshire) oswiu of northumbria (brother of oswald) defeats penda of mercia sep synod of whitby divisions within the northumbrian church led to the synod of whitby, where oswiu agreed to settle the easter controversy by adopting the roman dating roman christianity triumphs over celtic plague hit england, according to bede (writing c Buy Online Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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    This fact is rarely dis zeus was believed by the ancient greeks to be one of the olympian gods, and all the olympian gods lived on mt. Norman cathedral at old sarum) by bishop poore in 1220, consecrated in 1258, and its great spire finished in 1334 authorised manorial lords to enclose portions of commons and wastes provided that sufficient pasture remained for his tenants set the border between england and scotland, which remains to this day except round berwick aug 15 foundation stone of cologne cathedral laid building not completed until 1880 royal proclamations by henry iii are first government documents issued in english decreed in england that in leap years, the leap day and the day before are to be reckoned as one day for the purpose of calculating when a full year has passed a strange time for weather globally incessant rains, terrible floods, severe cold and disasterous harvests that led to famine now attributed to the eruption in the previous year of the volvano samalas in what is now indonesia Buy Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest Online at a discount

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    Mar 3 john wedgwood (eldest son of the potter josiah wedgwood) founds the royal horticultural society matthew flinders recommends that the newly discovered country, new holland, be renamed australia mar 25 parliament passes act prohibiting slavery and the importation of slaves from 1808 but does not prohibit colonial slavery jul 13 hot wednesday temperature of 101f in the shade recorded in london fourdrinier brothers set up first paper-making machine in england (at st neots) trevithick operated a catch-me-who-can demonstration railway with carriages in london for which he charged fares of one shilling john mcadam begins road construction in england, giving his name to the process of road metalling (see feb 1 light first lit on robert stephensons inchcape (bell) rock lighthouse off scotland feb 5 prince of wales (future george iv) made regent after george iii deemed insane nov luddite uprisings (machine breaking) in the midlands against weaving frames started went on until 1815 groups of workmen rebelled against the increased mechanisation of textile production by destroying the new machinery government fears revolutionary conspiracy damaging property or taking luddite oaths become capital offences shot as he entered the house of commons by a bankrupt liverpool broker, john bellingham, who was subsequently hanged jun 18 start of american war of 1812 (to 1814) against england and canada aug 24 peninsular war coalition forces including british succeed in lifting the two-and-a-half-year-long siege of cбdiz policy for the improvement of the highlands approved by british parliament may lawson, blaxland and wentworth, lead an expedition westwards from sydney roses act (1812) established a printed format for baptism & burial registers aug 13 convention of london signed, a treaty between the uk and the dutch first printed by a steam-powered mechanical apparatus (at 1,100 sheets per hour) dec 24 treaty of ghent signed ending the 1812 war between britain and the us excise tax payable on paper production (start of papermaking mill numbers) until for the first time british silver coins were produced with an intrinsic value substantially below their face value the first official token coinage climate the year without a summer followed a volcanic explosion of the mountain tambora in indonesia the previous year, the biggest volcanic explosion in 10,000 years oct 20 convention of 1818 signed between the united states and the united kingdom which, among other things, settled the us-canada border on the 49th parallel for most of its length feb 6 stamford raffles signs a treaty with sultan hussein shah of johor establishing singapore as a new trading post for the british east india company first steamship to cross atlantic, reaching liverpool (26 days, mostly under sail) a large, orderly group of 60,000 meets at st Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest For Sale

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    This they did, and had victory wherever they went. He was able to keep gascony and parts of aquitaine but only as a vassal to louis. Nov 14 first regular uk singles chart published by the new musical express bonn convention britain, france and usa end their occupation of west germany jan 31feb 2 said to be the biggest civil catastrophe in britain in the 20th century severe storm and high tides caused the loss of hundreds of lives - effects travelled from the west coast of scotland round to the south-east coast of england apr 25 francis crick and james d watson publish the double helix structure of dna (see nov 21 piltdown man skull declared a hoax by the natural history museum nov 25 hungary becomes the first football team outside the british isles to beat england at home, winning 6-3 at wembley stadium according to a survey by by true knowledge, apparently nothing happened worthy of report! May 29 first sub 5 minute mile by a woman (diane leather, 4 mins 59 For Sale Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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    Peters fields, manchester demand parliamentary reform mounted troops charge on the meeting, killing 11 people and and maiming many others prohibits assemblies similar to st. Mathias nicolls take the town from the dutch under orders from charles ii. It is the most powerful meteor observed to strike earths atmosphere in over a century feb 28 pope benedict xvi resigns, becoming the first pope to do so since gregory xii in 1415, and the first to do so voluntarily since celestine v in 1294 dec 14 chinese spacecraft change 3, carrying the yutu rover, becomes the first spacecraft to soft-land on the moon since 1976 mar 8 malaysian airlines flight mh370 disappears with 239 people on board presumed to have crashed into the indian ocean jul 17 malaysian airlines flight mh17 crashes in ukraine, after being shot down by a missile, killing 298 people mar 26 richard iii reburied in leicester cathedral over 500 years after his death may 2 leicester city fc win the english premier league 5,000-1 outsiders at the start of the season jun 23 uk referendum results in an unexpected small majority in favour of leaving the european union jun 27 england knocked out of the euro 2016 football competition by iceland, who play no domestic professional football aug 5 bank of england reduces interest rate to another record low of 0 Sale Alba George Watt Memorial Essay Contest

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